Monday, March 12, 2007

The Meaning of Dikaioo: Part 1

The meaning of dikaioo (to justify) and its cognates has been an issue of long standing debate between Catholics and Protestants. Both Calvin and Luther (though perhaps more so Calvin) give dikaioo a decidedly judicial, declarative turn. For Calvin, the Pauline conception of justification is limited to God’s judicial declaration that the one believing in Christ is now righteous/innocent regarding the divine judgment. Thus the “righteousness” of justification does not involve any ontological/ethical change, but rather speaks of one’s legal innocence derived from Christ and his atoning work. Further, Calvin very pointedly insists that the righteousness of justification has nothing whatsoever to do with regeneration (see his Institutes, III.13.5). In contrast, Catholic theologians—both then and now—have insisted that dikaioo has strong ontological overtones. Justification in Catholic thought is virtually synonymous with spiritual regeneration and speaks of the sinner’s actual transformation. (Both sides agree that this initial justification is apart from works.) While there is more to this debate than the correct lexical definition of dikaioo and its cognates, this is nonetheless an important place to begin.

Those who have read this blog for any length of time know that I have strong Augustinian tendencies. Consequently, I have sympathies toward the Catholic interpretation of dikaioo. Certainly Augustine and most of the early church fathers viewed justification in a transformative sense. This is conceded by most Protestant historians (though see Needham’s chapter in Justification in Perspective, where he marshals a myriad of evidence that shows a strong forensic strain in the early church. Thomas Oden attempts something similar in his Justification Reader, though with less success in my mind). Further, McGrath is incorrect in his contention that Augustine’s dependency on Latin—and thus the ontologically ladened Latin expression iustificare as a translation of the Greek dikaioo—caused Augustine to mistakenly read a transformative sense into Paul’s doctrine of justification that wasn’t originally present in the Greek (see Iustitia Dei, 12-16). But Augustine’s iustificare had a semantic range that allowed for a strictly declarative sense (see On the Spirit and the Letter, ch. 45). Augustine interpreted iustificare in a transformative sense because this was how he understood the term to be used in Scripture, and because this is how most of the early church fathers before him understood Paul’s doctrine of justification. Augustine had the tools to interpret iustificare in a declarative sense, and even did so on some occasions. But he chose not to do so in relation to the bulk of Paul’s letters.

Augustine’s interpretation of Paul makes a good deal of sense. But having said that, the fact remains that dikaioo does have strong declarative overtones. In the end, the meaning of the word doesn’t rest on it’s usage within the scope of church history, but on what the biblical authors actually meant by it when they used it. While Paul’s use of dikaioo can be interpreted in a transformative sense in many instances (especially Titus 3:4-7, where dikaioo is used as a participle summarizing the spiritual regeneration and ontological cleansing of the preceding verses), virtually all of these passages can be read in a thoroughly Protestant manner as well. It is necessary, I believe, to look beyond Paul’s use of the term and examine the broader biblical usage, particularly in the LXX. This gives us a clue in determining what Paul had in mind when he co-opted this term for his soteriological purposes.

Passages such as Deuteronomy 25:1, 2 Samuel 15:4, 1 Kings 8:32, 2 Chronicles 6:23, Isaiah 5:23, and 43:26, etc., show that dikaioo was frequently used in a judicial context, with dikaioo denoting the judicial ruling/declaration/verdict that one party was right over against another. In most other instances outside of a formal judicial context, the meaning of the term seems to carry the primary meaning of “to vindicate” (see Genesis 44:16, Psalm 51:4, Isaiah 43:26, etc.). In no instances that I am aware is dikaioo used in the LXX to denote moral or ontological change (if anyone knows different, please let me know). But does this mean that Calvin and company are essentially correct in their insistence that justification involves no ontological component? I don’t believe so. In my next post I will offer a working thesis regarding the nature of justification and its relationship to the New Covenant, and argue that spiritual regeneration is central to Paul’s conception of justification.

See part 2 here.


Pontificator said...

Gerald, I am delighted to see you tackling this subject and very much look forward to your next post. Your reflections come at a timely moment for me, as I work through the Letter to the Romans, with N. T. Wright as my principal guide. Wright has confirmed my conviction that Rom 1-4 must be read in light of Roman 5-8. Christians have died with Christ in baptism and regenerated in the Spirit. Justification and transformation must be thought together. The Old Testament lexical meaning of dikaioo cannot be determinative here, precisely because of the new reality that God has accomplished in the death and resurrection of Jesus and the Pentecostal outpouring of the Holy Spirit. Those who have been righteoused are precisely those whom God has made a new creation. Paul is breaking the language of imputation to make it express the eschatological reality of existence in Christ.

Words must be ultimately understood in terms of the realities to which they point. Newman saw this clearly:

"To'justify' means in itself 'counting rightous' but includes under its meaning 'making righteous;' in other words, the sense of the term is 'counting righteous,' and the nature of the thing denoted by it is making righteous. In the abstract it is a counting righeous, in the concrete a making righteous."

To restrict justification to an imputational sense is to deny the profound change God has effected in believers in Holy Baptism, the sacrament of justification. "Know ye not that the unrighteous shall not inherit the kingdom of God? ... And such were some of you: but ye were washed, but ye were sanctified, but ye were justified in the Name of the Lord Jesus Christ, and in the Spirit of our God" (1 Cor 6:9,11). This, I suggest, is the reason why an imputational construal of dikaioun is absent in the Church Fathers, including the Eastern Fathers, who presumably knew how to read Greek.

Gerald said...


Thanks. I'll be interested to hear your thoughts after you read part 2. Ultimately, I don't think we need to jettison the OT context, we simply need to understand it better.


Pontificator said...

Gerald, you may find of interest Chris Vanlandingham's *Judgment and Justification in Early Judaism and the Apostle Paul*, esp chap. 4, in which he surveys the use dikaioo in the Septuagint, intertestamental literature, and NT (excluding Paul). His survey yields, so he says, 13 different meanings for the verb. For the meaning "make righteous" he identifies Ps 72:13, Lk 18:14, Jas 2:21, 24, 25.

RevK said...

"Calvin very pointedly insists that the righteousness of justification has nothing whatsoever to do with regeneration (see his Institutes, III.13.5)."

Is this an accurate statement given the context? My read is that even the "fruits" of regeneration, in the end, are not the grounds of our justification...

"...we must hold that the only hope which believers have of the heavenly inheritance is, that being in grafted into the body of Christ, they are justified freely." (even apart from the expected evidence of regeneration since as Calvin puts it... "is not obtained by the gift of regeneration, which, as it is always defective in the present state, contains within it many grounds of doubt.") III.13.5

Anonymous said...

There is no strong basis for using dikaioo to mean "make righteous". Calvin is correct.
The righteousness of Justification cannot refer to regeneration because regeneration is always defective in its present state. The ground of justification can only be the perfect
righteousness of Christ. Rom. 5-8 speaks of the work of the Holy Spirit in producing holiness
of life in the believer,After his profession of faith in the perfect righteousness of Christ--
Rom. chs 1-4.